Threat: High threat environmental weed.
Description: Tall straight evergreen tree, growing up to 30 metres tall or more. Usually spreading with straight branches, whorled and dark deeply fissured bark on trunk.
Flowers: Male cones small scaly and clustered near branch tips. Female cones can measure 7–17cm in length, woody, brown egg-shaped structures borne on short stalks, single or in clusters, usually set asymmetrically on a branch, attached at an oblique angle.
Fruits: Dry winged seeds released from mature cones annually. Wind dispersed.
Leaves: Dark green, needle-like, hard waxy surface, in clusters of three.
Stems: The bark is generally fissured and dark-grey to brown-black in colour.
Note: Can establish in disturbed and undisturbed areas. Combination of shade and dense carpet of pine needles on ground exclude most native plants. Pines have winged seeds which aid their dispersal into bushland where they form dense stands and compete with native species. Cones can also be transported into bushland by Cockatoos. Fire can sometimes release massive amounts of seed from cones, with seedlings establishing en masse in the fresh ash beds. Highly palatable to livestock, toxic to goats, before and after kidding, and potentially toxic to other livestock.
Control measures: Cut and paint or drill/frill and fill with suitable herbicide, spot spraying, hand weeding.